The clinical and integrated management of COPD.
Bettoncelli G1, Blasi F, Brusasco V, Centanni S, Corrado A, De Benedetto F, De Michele F, Di Maria GU, Donner CF, Falcone F, Mereu C, Nardini S, Pasqua F, Polverino M, Rossi A, Sanguinetti CM.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2014 May 12;31(0):3609.
An official document of AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for research in Lung Disease), AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists), SIMER (Italian Society of Respiratory Medicine), SIMG (Italian Society of General Medicine).
COPD is a chronic disease of the respiratory system characteriz ed by persistent and partially re-versible airflow obstruction, to which variably contribute remodeling of bronchi (chronic bronchitis), bronchi-oles (small airway disease) and lung parenchyma (pulmonary emphysema). COPD can cause important sys-temic effects and be associated with complications and comorbidities. The diagnosis of COPD is based on the presence of respiratory symptoms and/or a history of exposure to risk factors, and the demonstration of airflow obstruction by spirometry. GARD of WHO has defined COPD "a preventable and treatable disease". The in-tegration among general practitioner, chest physician as well as other specialists, whenever required, assures the best management of the COPD person, when specific targets to be achieved are well defined in a diagnostic and therapeutic route, previously designed and shared with appropriateness. The first-line pharmacologic treat-ment of COPD is represented by inhaled long-acting bronchodilators. In patients with FEV1 < 60% of pre-dicted and with a clinical history of proven bronchial hyperreactivity or with frequent exacerbations (≥ 3/last 3 years) inhaled corticosteroid should be added. Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated in stable patients, at rest while receiving the best possible treatment, and exhibiting a PaO2 ≤ 55 mmHg (SO2<88%) or PaO2 val-ues between 56 and 59 mmHg (SO2 < 89%) associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, cor pulmonale, or edema of the lower limbs or hematocrit > 55%. Respiratory rehabilitation is addressed to patients with chronic respiratory disease in all stages of severity who report symp-toms and limitation of their daily activity. It must be integrated in an individual patient tailored treatment as it improves dyspnea, exercise performance, and quality of life. Acute exacerbation of COPD is a sudden worsening of usual symptoms in a person with COPD, over and beyond normal daily variability that requires treatment modification. The pharmacologic therapy can be ap-plied at home and includes the administration of drugs used during the stable phase by increasing the dose or modifying the route, and adding, whenever required, drugs as antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids. In case of patients who because of COPD severity and/or of exacerbations do not respond promptly to treatment at home hospital admission should be considered. Patients with "severe or "very severe COPD who experience exacerbations should be carried out in respiratory unit, based on the severity of acute respiratory failure. An integrated system is required in the community in order to ensure adequate treatments also outside acute care hospital settings and rehabilitation centers. This article is being simultaneusly published in Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 2014; 9:25(Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2014; 31 Suppl 1: 3-21).